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--- /arXMLiv/repos/arXMLiv/trunk/sty/CUNY_PhD.cls	2013-04-25 13:36:10.042013221 +0200
+++ /arXMLiv/repos/arXMLiv/trunk/sty/sat.cls	2010-04-03 09:57:36.000000000 +0200
@@ -1,80 +1,73 @@
-%% Remove the .txt extension from the filename. The name of this
-%% has to be 'CUNY_PhD.cls'.
-%%
-%% This is file `CUNY_PhD.cls',
-%% created by manually modifying the file book.cls that comes
-%% with LaTeX.
-%%
-%% This is NOT a generated file.
-%%
-%% This file is provided as is with no guarantee of fitness for
-%% any particular purpose.  Nonetheless, it is hoped that it may
-%% help CUNY Ph.D. students in complying with the school's formatting
-%% requirements as specified in the memorandum "Instructions for
-%% Preparing the Doctoral Dissertation" from the Office of the
-%% Registrar.
-%%
-%% To install using miktex 1.20, copy this file into the
-%% directory \texmf\tex\latex\base or wherever book.cls is found.  Then
-%% run initexmf --update-fndb.  Other LaTeX systems or other versions
-%% of miktex might require different installation steps.
-%%
-%% Your LaTeX dissertation file should start out like this:
-%%
-%% \documentclass[draft,12pt,oneside]{CUNY_PhD}
-%% ...
-%% \pagestyle{headings}
-%% \title{Dissertation title}
-%% \author{Your name}
-%% ...
-%% any 'preamble' stuff
-%% ...
-%% \begin{document}
-%%
-%% \frontmatter
-%%
-%% \maketitle % same name as the 'book' documentclass command, but gives a
-%% CUNY titlepage
-%%
-%% optional:
-%% \makecopyrightpage
-%%
-%% \makeapprovalpage{1st Committee member}{2d Committee member}{3d Committee member}{4th Committee member}
-%%
-%% optional:
-%% \makeabstractpage{Advisor's name}{Text of Abstract, up to 350 words}
-%%
-%% (In addition to these last four custom CUNY commands, all LaTex
-%% commands, including those from the LaTeX 'book' class, are available.
-%% Footnotes and the bibliography will be single spaced, as
-%% required by CUNY, while the main text will be double spaced.)
-%%
-%% optional:
-%% \chapter*{Acknowledgements}
-%% Text of acknowledgements
-%%
-%% \tableofcontents
-%%
-%% \mainmatter
-%%
-%% If you want an introduction in the table of contents, but
-%% without its own chapter number, do this:
-%% \chapter*{Introduction}
-%% \addcontentsline{toc}{chapter}{\numberline{}Introduction}
-%% \markboth{Introduction}{INTRODUCTION}
-%%
-%% Also, to ensure that the bibliography is in the table of
-%% contents, do this when you reach the end of the main text:
-%%
-%% \backmatter
-%% \begin{thebibliography}{n} %(where n is the longest item)
-%% \addcontentsline{toc}{chapter}{\numberline{}Bibliography }
-%% ...
-%%
-%% Good luck!
-%%
-%%
-%%
+\def\newtheorem#1{%
+  \@ifnextchar[{\@othm{#1}}{\@nthm{#1}}}
+\def\@nthm#1#2{%
+  \@ifnextchar[{\@xnthm{#1}{#2}}{\@ynthm{#1}{#2}}}
+\def\@xnthm#1#2[#3]{%
+  \expandafter\@ifdefinable\csname #1\endcsname
+    {\@definecounter{#1}\@newctr{#1}[#3]%
+     \expandafter\xdef\csname the#1\endcsname{%
+       \expandafter\noexpand\csname the#3\endcsname \@thmcountersep
+          \@thmcounter{#1}}%
+     \global\@namedef{#1}{\@thm{#1}{#2}}%
+     \global\@namedef{end#1}{\@endtheorem}}}
+\def\@ynthm#1#2{%
+  \expandafter\@ifdefinable\csname #1\endcsname
+    {\@definecounter{#1}%
+     \expandafter\xdef\csname the#1\endcsname{\@thmcounter{#1}}%
+     \global\@namedef{#1}{\@thm{#1}{#2}}%
+     \global\@namedef{end#1}{\@endtheorem}}}
+\def\@othm#1[#2]#3{%
+  \@ifundefined{c@#2}{\@nocounterr{#2}}%
+    {\expandafter\@ifdefinable\csname #1\endcsname
+    {\global\@namedef{the#1}{\@nameuse{the#2}}%
+  \global\@namedef{#1}{\@thm{#2}{#3}}%
+  \global\@namedef{end#1}{\@endtheorem}}}}
+\def\@thm#1#2{%
+  \refstepcounter{#1}%
+  \@ifnextchar[{\@ythm{#1}{#2}}{\@xthm{#1}{#2}}}
+\def\@xthm#1#2{%
+  \@begintheorem{#2}{\csname the#1\endcsname}\ignorespaces}
+\def\@ythm#1#2[#3]{%
+  \@opargbegintheorem{#2}{\csname the#1\endcsname}{#3}\ignorespaces}
+\def\@thmcounter#1{\noexpand\arabic{#1}}
+\def\@thmcountersep{.}
+\def\@begintheorem#1#2{\trivlist
+   \item[\hskip \labelsep{\bfseries #1\ #2}]\slshape}
+\def\@opargbegintheorem#1#2#3{\trivlist
+      \item[\hskip \labelsep{\bfseries #1\ #2\ (#3)}]\slshape}
+\def\@endtheorem{\endtrivlist}
+%%
+%% This is file `article.cls',
+%% generated with the docstrip utility.
+%%
+%% The original source files were:
+%%
+%% classes.dtx  (with options: `article')
+%%
+%% This is a generated file.
+%%
+%% Copyright 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
+%% The LaTeX3 Project and any individual authors listed elsewhere
+%% in this file.
+%%
+%% This file was generated from file(s) of the LaTeX base system.
+%% --------------------------------------------------------------
+%%
+%% It may be distributed and/or modified under the
+%% conditions of the LaTeX Project Public License, either version 1.2
+%% of this license or (at your option) any later version.
+%% The latest version of this license is in
+%%    http://www.latex-project.org/lppl.txt
+%% and version 1.2 or later is part of all distributions of LaTeX
+%% version 1999/12/01 or later.
+%%
+%% This file may only be distributed together with a copy of the LaTeX
+%% base system. You may however distribute the LaTeX base system without
+%% such generated files.
+%%
+%% The list of all files belonging to the LaTeX base distribution is
+%% given in the file `manifest.txt'. See also `legal.txt' for additional
+%% information.
 %%
 %% \CharacterTable
 %%  {Upper-case    \A\B\C\D\E\F\G\H\I\J\K\L\M\N\O\P\Q\R\S\T\U\V\W\X\Y\Z
@@ -92,23 +85,13 @@
 %%   Grave accent  \`     Left brace    \{     Vertical bar  \|
 %%   Right brace   \}     Tilde         \~}
 \NeedsTeXFormat{LaTeX2e}[1995/12/01]
-\ProvidesClass{CUNY_PhD}
-              [1999/01/07 v1.4a
+\ProvidesClass{article}
+              [2001/04/21 v1.4e
  Standard LaTeX document class]
-
 \newcommand\@ptsize{}
 \newif\if@restonecol
 \newif\if@titlepage
-\@titlepagetrue
-\newif\if@copyrightpage
-\@copyrightpagetrue
-\newif\if@approvalpage
-\@approvalpagetrue
-\newif\if@abstractpage
-\@abstractpagetrue
-
-\newif\if@openright
-\newif\if@mainmatter \@mainmattertrue
+\@titlepagefalse
 \if@compatibility\else
 \DeclareOption{a4paper}
    {\setlength\paperheight {297mm}%
@@ -132,13 +115,6 @@
    {\setlength\@tempdima   {\paperheight}%
     \setlength\paperheight {\paperwidth}%
     \setlength\paperwidth  {\@tempdima}}
-\DeclareOption{copyrightpage}
-    {\@copyrightpagetrue}
-\DeclareOption{approvalpage}
-    {\@approvalpagetrue}
-\DeclareOption{abstractpage}
-    {\@abstractpagetrue}
-
 \fi
 \if@compatibility
   \renewcommand\@ptsize{0}
@@ -159,12 +135,6 @@
 \if@compatibility\else
 \DeclareOption{notitlepage}{\@titlepagefalse}
 \fi
-\if@compatibility
-\@openrighttrue
-\else
-\DeclareOption{openright}{\@openrighttrue}
-\DeclareOption{openany}{\@openrightfalse}
-\fi
 \if@compatibility\else
 \DeclareOption{onecolumn}{\@twocolumnfalse}
 \fi
@@ -181,28 +151,12 @@
       }%
    \renewcommand\newblock{\par}}%
 }
-\ExecuteOptions{letterpaper,10pt,twoside,onecolumn,final,openright}
+\ExecuteOptions{letterpaper,10pt,oneside,onecolumn,final}
 \ProcessOptions
-\input{bk1\@ptsize.clo}
+\input{size1\@ptsize.clo}
 \setlength\lineskip{1\p@}
 \setlength\normallineskip{1\p@}
-\renewcommand\baselinestretch{1}
-
-\newcommand{\doublespaced}{\baselineskip=28pt}
-\newcommand{\almostdoublespaced}{\baselineskip=23pt}
-\newcommand{\singlespaced}{\baselineskip=15pt}
-
-% the following is to implement single-spaced footnotes in a
-% double-spaced environment.  The \basefootnote code was copied from
-% the \footnote definition in the LaTeX source2e file. -gjl
-\newcommand{\basefootnote}{\@ifnextchar[\@xfootnote{\stepcounter\@mpfn
-    \protected@xdef\@thefnmark{\thempfn}%
-    \@footnotemark \@footnotetext}}
-\renewcommand{\footnote}[1]{\begingroup\singlespaced\basefootnote{#1}\endgroup}
-
-\topmargin=0.75in
-
-
+\renewcommand\baselinestretch{}
 \setlength\parskip{0\p@ \@plus \p@}
 \@lowpenalty   51
 \@medpenalty  151
@@ -223,31 +177,27 @@
       \def\@evenhead{\thepage\hfil\slshape\leftmark}%
       \def\@oddhead{{\slshape\rightmark}\hfil\thepage}%
       \let\@mkboth\markboth
-    \def\chaptermark##1{%
+    \def\sectionmark##1{%
       \markboth {\MakeUppercase{%
-        \ifnum \c@secnumdepth >\m@ne
-          \if@mainmatter
-            \@chapapp\ \thechapter. \ %
-          \fi
+        \ifnum \c@secnumdepth >\z@
+          \thesection\quad
         \fi
         ##1}}{}}%
-    \def\sectionmark##1{%
-      \markright {\MakeUppercase{%
-        \ifnum \c@secnumdepth >\z@
-          \thesection. \ %
+    \def\subsectionmark##1{%
+      \markright {%
+        \ifnum \c@secnumdepth >\@ne
+          \thesubsection\quad
         \fi
-        ##1}}}}
+        ##1}}}
 \else
   \def\ps@headings{%
     \let\@oddfoot\@empty
     \def\@oddhead{{\slshape\rightmark}\hfil\thepage}%
     \let\@mkboth\markboth
-    \def\chaptermark##1{%
+    \def\sectionmark##1{%
       \markright {\MakeUppercase{%
         \ifnum \c@secnumdepth >\m@ne
-          \if@mainmatter
-            \@chapapp\ \thechapter. \ %
-          \fi
+          \thesection\quad
         \fi
         ##1}}}}
 \fi
@@ -256,10 +206,10 @@
     \def\@evenhead{\thepage\hfil\slshape\leftmark}%
     \def\@oddhead{{\slshape\rightmark}\hfil\thepage}%
     \let\@mkboth\@gobbletwo
-    \let\chaptermark\@gobble
     \let\sectionmark\@gobble
+    \let\subsectionmark\@gobble
     }
-
+  \if@titlepage
 \newcommand\maketitle{\begin{titlepage}%
   \let\footnotesize\small
   \let\footnoterule\relax
@@ -272,280 +222,130 @@
     {\large
      \lineskip .75em%
       \begin{tabular}[t]{c}%
-        by
-      \end{tabular}\par}%
-      \vskip 1.0em%
-    {\large
-     \lineskip .75em%
-      \begin{tabular}[t]{c}%
-        \@author
-      \end{tabular}\par}%
-      \vskip 1.5em%
-  \end{center}\par
-  \vskip 30\p@
-
-  \begin{raggedright}%
-  A dissertation submitted to the Graduate Faculty in Mathematics
-  in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
-  Doctor of Philosophy, The City University of New York.
-  \end{raggedright}\par
-  \begin{center}%
-    \number\year
-  \end{center}\par
-  \end{titlepage}
-}
-
-\newcommand\makecopyrightpage{\begin{copyrightpage}%
-  \singlespaced
-  \null\vfil
-  \vskip 60\p@
-
-  \begin{center}%
-    \copyright \number\year
-    \vskip 3em%
-    {\large
-     \lineskip .75em%
-      \begin{tabular}[t]{c}%
         \@author
       \end{tabular}\par}%
-      \vskip 3.0em%
-    {\large
-     \lineskip .75em%
-      \begin{tabular}[t]{c}%
-        All Rights Reserved
-      \end{tabular}\par}%
       \vskip 1.5em%
-
+    {\large \@date \par}%       % Set date in \large size.
   \end{center}\par
-  \end{copyrightpage}
+  \@thanks
+  \vfil\null
+  \end{titlepage}%
+  \setcounter{footnote}{0}%
+  \global\let\thanks\relax
+  \global\let\maketitle\relax
+  \global\let\@thanks\@empty
+  \global\let\@author\@empty
+  \global\let\@date\@empty
+  \global\let\@title\@empty
+  \global\let\title\relax
+  \global\let\author\relax
+  \global\let\date\relax
+  \global\let\and\relax
 }
-
-\newcommand\makeapprovalpage[4]{\begin{approvalpage}%
-\singlespaced
-\noindent This manuscript has been read and accepted for the
-Graduate Faculty in Mathematics in satisfaction of the
-dissertation requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
-
-\begin{tabbing}
-\hspace{3.5 in} \= \textbf{(required signature)} \\
-\hspace{3.5 in} \= \hspace{0.5 in} \\
-\hbox{\rule{1 in}{.01 in}} \> \hbox{\rule{2 in}{.01 in}}\\
-Date \> Chair of Examining Committee  \\
-\hspace{3.5 in} \= \hspace{0.5 in} \\
-\hspace{3.5 in} \> \textbf{(required signature)} \\
-\hspace{3.5 in} \= \hspace{0.5 in} \\
-\hbox{\rule{1 in}{.01 in}} \> \hbox{\rule{2 in}{.01 in}}\\
-Date \> Executive Officer \\
-\hspace{2.5 in} \= \hspace{0.5 in} \\
-\hspace{2.5 in} \> \hspace{0.5 in} \\
-\hspace{2.5 in} \> #1 \\
-\hspace{2.5 in} \> \hspace{0.5 in} \\
-\hspace{2.5 in} \> \hbox{\rule{3 in}{.01 in}}\\
-\hspace{2.5 in} \> \hspace{0.5 in} \\
-\hspace{2.5 in} \> #2 \\
-\hspace{2.5 in} \> \hspace{0.5 in} \\
-\hspace{2.5 in} \> \hbox{\rule{3 in}{.01 in}}\\
-\hspace{2.5 in} \> \hspace{0.5 in} \\
-\hspace{2.5 in} \> #3 \\
-\hspace{2.5 in} \> \hspace{0.5 in} \\
-\hspace{2.5 in} \> \hbox{\rule{3 in}{.01 in}}\\
-\hspace{2.5 in} \> \hspace{0.5 in} \\
-\hspace{2.5 in} \> #4 \\
-\hspace{2.5 in} \> \hspace{0.5 in} \\
-\hspace{2.5 in} \> \hbox{\rule{3 in}{.01 in}}\\
-\hspace{2.5 in} \> Supervisory Committee\\
-\end{tabbing}
-
-  \vskip 30\p@
-  \begin{center}%
-    THE CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK
-  \end{center}\par
-
-  \end{approvalpage}
-  \doublespaced
+\else
+\newcommand\maketitle{\par
+  \begingroup
+    \renewcommand\thefootnote{\@fnsymbol\c@footnote}%
+    \def\@makefnmark{\rlap{\@textsuperscript{\normalfont\@thefnmark}}}%
+    \long\def\@makefntext##1{\parindent 1em\noindent
+            \hb@xt@1.8em{%
+                \hss\@textsuperscript{\normalfont\@thefnmark}}##1}%
+    \if@twocolumn
+      \ifnum \col@number=\@ne
+        \@maketitle
+      \else
+        \twocolumn[\@maketitle]%
+      \fi
+    \else
+      \newpage
+      \global\@topnum\z@   % Prevents figures from going at top of page.
+      \@maketitle
+    \fi
+    \thispagestyle{plain}\@thanks
+  \endgroup
+  \setcounter{footnote}{0}%
+  \global\let\thanks\relax
+  \global\let\maketitle\relax
+  \global\let\@maketitle\relax
+  \global\let\@thanks\@empty
+  \global\let\@author\@empty
+  \global\let\@date\@empty
+  \global\let\@title\@empty
+  \global\let\title\relax
+  \global\let\author\relax
+  \global\let\date\relax
+  \global\let\and\relax
 }
-
-\newcommand\makeabstractpage[2]{\begin{abstractpage}%
-%  \null\vfil
-%  \vskip 20\p@
-
-  \begin{center}%
-    Abstract
+\def\@maketitle{%
+  \newpage
+  \null
     \vskip 2em%
+  \begin{center}%
+  \let \footnote \thanks
+    {\LARGE \@title \par}%
+    \vskip 1.5em%
     {\large
-     \lineskip .75em%
-      \begin{tabular}[t]{c}%
-        \@title
-      \end{tabular}\par}%
-      \vskip 1.0em%
-    {\large
-     \lineskip .75em%
-      \begin{tabular}[t]{c}%
-        by
-      \end{tabular}\par}%
-      \vskip 1.0em%
-
-    {\large
-     \lineskip .75em%
+      \lineskip .5em%
       \begin{tabular}[t]{c}%
         \@author
       \end{tabular}\par}%
-      \vskip 3.0em%
-
-  \end{center}\par
-  \begin{raggedright}%
-  Advisor: #1 % the first argument is the advisor's name
-  \end{raggedright}\par
-
-  \vskip 3.0em%
-
-  %the second argument is the body of the abstract
-
-  #2
-
-  \end{abstractpage}
-  \doublespaced
-}
-
-\newcommand*\chaptermark[1]{}
-\setcounter{secnumdepth}{2}
+    \vskip 1em%
+    {\large \@date}%
+  \end{center}%
+  \par
+  \vskip 1.5em}
+\fi
+\setcounter{secnumdepth}{3}
 \newcounter {part}
-\newcounter {chapter}
-\newcounter {section}[chapter]
+\newcounter {section}
 \newcounter {subsection}[section]
 \newcounter {subsubsection}[subsection]
 \newcounter {paragraph}[subsubsection]
 \newcounter {subparagraph}[paragraph]
 \renewcommand \thepart {\@Roman\c@part}
-\renewcommand \thechapter {\@arabic\c@chapter}
-\renewcommand \thesection {\thechapter.\@arabic\c@section}
+\renewcommand \thesection {\@arabic\c@section}
 \renewcommand\thesubsection   {\thesection.\@arabic\c@subsection}
 \renewcommand\thesubsubsection{\thesubsection .\@arabic\c@subsubsection}
 \renewcommand\theparagraph    {\thesubsubsection.\@arabic\c@paragraph}
 \renewcommand\thesubparagraph {\theparagraph.\@arabic\c@subparagraph}
-\newcommand\@chapapp{\chaptername}
-\newcommand\frontmatter{%
-    \cleardoublepage
-  \@mainmatterfalse
-  \pagenumbering{roman}}
-\newcommand\mainmatter{%
-    \cleardoublepage
-  \@mainmattertrue
-  \pagenumbering{arabic}}
-\newcommand\backmatter{%
-  \if@openright
-    \cleardoublepage
-  \else
-    \clearpage
-  \fi
-  \@mainmatterfalse}
 \newcommand\part{%
-  \if@openright
-    \cleardoublepage
-  \else
-    \clearpage
-  \fi
-  \thispagestyle{plain}%
-  \if@twocolumn
-    \onecolumn
-    \@tempswatrue
-  \else
-    \@tempswafalse
-  \fi
-  \null\vfil
+   \if@noskipsec \leavevmode \fi
+   \par
+   \addvspace{4ex}%
+   \@afterindentfalse
   \secdef\@part\@spart}

 \def\@part[#1]#2{%
-    \ifnum \c@secnumdepth >-2\relax
+    \ifnum \c@secnumdepth >\m@ne
       \refstepcounter{part}%
       \addcontentsline{toc}{part}{\thepart\hspace{1em}#1}%
     \else
       \addcontentsline{toc}{part}{#1}%
     \fi
-    \markboth{}{}%
-    {\centering
-     \interlinepenalty \@M
-     \normalfont
-     \ifnum \c@secnumdepth >-2\relax
-       \huge\bfseries \partname~\thepart
-       \par
-       \vskip 20\p@
-     \fi
-     \Huge \bfseries #2\par}%
-    \@endpart}
-\def\@spart#1{%
-    {\centering
+    {\parindent \z@ \raggedright
      \interlinepenalty \@M
      \normalfont
-     \Huge \bfseries #1\par}%
-    \@endpart}
-\def\@endpart{\vfil\newpage
-              \if@twoside
-                \null
-                \thispagestyle{empty}%
-                \newpage
-              \fi
-              \if@tempswa
-                \twocolumn
-              \fi}
-\newcommand\chapter{\if@openright\cleardoublepage\else\clearpage\fi
-                    \thispagestyle{plain}%
-                    \global\@topnum\z@
-                    \@afterindentfalse
-                    \secdef\@chapter\@schapter}
-\def\@chapter[#1]#2{\ifnum \c@secnumdepth >\m@ne
-                       \if@mainmatter
-                         \refstepcounter{chapter}%
-                         \typeout{\@chapapp\space\thechapter.}%
-                         \addcontentsline{toc}{chapter}%
-                                   {\protect\numberline{\thechapter}#1}%
-                       \else
-                         \addcontentsline{toc}{chapter}{#1}%
-                       \fi
-                    \else
-                      \addcontentsline{toc}{chapter}{#1}%
-                    \fi
-                    \chaptermark{#1}%
-                    \addtocontents{lof}{\protect\addvspace{10\p@}}%
-                    \addtocontents{lot}{\protect\addvspace{10\p@}}%
-                    \if@twocolumn
-                      \@topnewpage[\@makechapterhead{#2}]%
-                    \else
-                      \@makechapterhead{#2}%
-                      \@afterheading
-                    \fi}
-\def\@makechapterhead#1{%
-  \vspace*{50\p@}%
-  {\parindent \z@ \raggedright \normalfont
     \ifnum \c@secnumdepth >\m@ne
-      \if@mainmatter
-        \huge\bfseries \@chapapp\space \thechapter
+       \Large\bfseries \partname\nobreakspace\thepart
         \par\nobreak
-        \vskip 20\p@
-      \fi
     \fi
-    \interlinepenalty\@M
-    \Huge \bfseries #1\par\nobreak
-    \vskip 40\p@
-  }}
-\def\@schapter#1{\if@twocolumn
-                   \@topnewpage[\@makeschapterhead{#1}]%
-                 \else
-                   \@makeschapterhead{#1}%
-                   \@afterheading
-                 \fi}
-\def\@makeschapterhead#1{%
-  \vspace*{50\p@}%
+     \huge \bfseries #2%
+     \markboth{}{}\par}%
+    \nobreak
+    \vskip 3ex
+    \@afterheading}
+\def\@spart#1{%
   {\parindent \z@ \raggedright
-    \normalfont
     \interlinepenalty\@M
-    \Huge \bfseries  #1\par\nobreak
-    \vskip 40\p@
-  }}
+     \normalfont
+     \huge \bfseries #1\par}%
+     \nobreak
+     \vskip 3ex
+     \@afterheading}
 \newcommand\section{\@startsection {section}{1}{\z@}%
                                    {-3.5ex \@plus -1ex \@minus -.2ex}%
                                    {2.3ex \@plus.2ex}%
-                                   {\normalfont\Large\bfseries}}
+                                   {\normalfont\large\bfseries}}
 \newcommand\subsection{\@startsection{subsection}{2}{\z@}%
                                      {-3.25ex\@plus -1ex \@minus -.2ex}%
                                      {1.5ex \@plus .2ex}%
@@ -605,6 +405,29 @@
                {\endlist}
 \newcommand*\descriptionlabel[1]{\hspace\labelsep
                                 \normalfont\bfseries #1}
+\if@titlepage
+  \newenvironment{abstract}{%
+      \titlepage
+      \null\vfil
+      \@beginparpenalty\@lowpenalty
+      \begin{center}%
+        \bfseries \abstractname
+        \@endparpenalty\@M
+      \end{center}}%
+     {\par\vfil\null\endtitlepage}
+\else
+  \newenvironment{abstract}{%
+      \if@twocolumn
+        \section*{\abstractname}%
+      \else
+        \small
+        \begin{center}%
+          {\bfseries \abstractname\vspace{-.5em}\vspace{\z@}}%
+        \end{center}%
+        \quotation
+      \fi}
+      {\if@twocolumn\else\endquotation\fi}
+\fi
 \newenvironment{verse}
                {\let\\\@centercr
                 \list{}{\itemsep      \z@
@@ -625,125 +448,40 @@
                {\list{}{\rightmargin\leftmargin}%
                 \item\relax}
                {\endlist}
-
 \if@compatibility
 \newenvironment{titlepage}
     {%
-      \cleardoublepage
       \if@twocolumn
         \@restonecoltrue\onecolumn
       \else
         \@restonecolfalse\newpage
       \fi
       \thispagestyle{empty}%
-
+      \setcounter{page}\z@
     }%
     {\if@restonecol\twocolumn \else \newpage \fi
     }
 \else
 \newenvironment{titlepage}
     {%
-      \cleardoublepage
       \if@twocolumn
         \@restonecoltrue\onecolumn
       \else
         \@restonecolfalse\newpage
       \fi
       \thispagestyle{empty}%
+      \setcounter{page}\@ne
     }%
     {\if@restonecol\twocolumn \else \newpage \fi
-    }
-\fi
-
-\if@compatibility
-\newenvironment{copyrightpage}
-    {%
-      \cleardoublepage
-      \if@twocolumn
-        \@restonecoltrue\onecolumn
-      \else
-        \@restonecolfalse\newpage
+     \if@twoside\else
+        \setcounter{page}\@ne
       \fi
-    }%
-    {\if@restonecol\twocolumn \else \newpage \fi
     }
-\else
-\newenvironment{copyrightpage}
-    {%
-      \cleardoublepage
-      \if@twocolumn
-        \@restonecoltrue\onecolumn
-      \else
-        \@restonecolfalse\newpage
       \fi
-    }%
-    {\if@restonecol\twocolumn \else \newpage \fi
-    }
-\fi
-
-\if@compatibility
-\newenvironment{approvalpage}
-    {%
-      \cleardoublepage
-      \if@twocolumn
-        \@restonecoltrue\onecolumn
-      \else
-        \@restonecolfalse\newpage
-      \fi
-    }%
-    {\if@restonecol\twocolumn \else \newpage \fi
-    }
-\else
-\newenvironment{approvalpage}
-    {%
-      \cleardoublepage
-      \if@twocolumn
-        \@restonecoltrue\onecolumn
-      \else
-        \@restonecolfalse\newpage
-      \fi
-    }%
-    {\if@restonecol\twocolumn \else \newpage \fi
-    }
-\fi
-
-\if@compatibility
-\newenvironment{abstractpage}
-    {%
-      \cleardoublepage
-      \if@twocolumn
-        \@restonecoltrue\onecolumn
-      \else
-        \@restonecolfalse\newpage
-      \fi
-         %   \thispagestyle{empty}%
-
-    }%
-    {\if@restonecol\twocolumn \else \newpage \fi
-    \doublespaced
-    }
-\else
-\newenvironment{abstractpage}
-    {%
-      \cleardoublepage
-      \if@twocolumn
-        \@restonecoltrue\onecolumn
-      \else
-        \@restonecolfalse\newpage
-      \fi
-          %  \thispagestyle{empty}%
-
-    }%
-    {\if@restonecol\twocolumn \else \newpage \fi
-     \doublespaced
-    }
-\fi
-
 \newcommand\appendix{\par
-  \setcounter{chapter}{0}%
   \setcounter{section}{0}%
-  \gdef\@chapapp{\appendixname}%
-  \gdef\thechapter{\@Alph\c@chapter}}
+  \setcounter{subsection}{0}%
+  \gdef\thesection{\@Alph\c@section}}
 \setlength\arraycolsep{5\p@}
 \setlength\tabcolsep{6\p@}
 \setlength\arrayrulewidth{.4\p@}
@@ -752,29 +490,25 @@
 \skip\@mpfootins = \skip\footins
 \setlength\fboxsep{3\p@}
 \setlength\fboxrule{.4\p@}
-\@addtoreset {equation}{chapter}
-\renewcommand\theequation
-  {\ifnum \c@chapter>\z@ \thechapter.\fi \@arabic\c@equation}
-\newcounter{figure}[chapter]
-\renewcommand \thefigure
-     {\ifnum \c@chapter>\z@ \thechapter.\fi \@arabic\c@figure}
+\renewcommand \theequation {\@arabic\c@equation}
+\newcounter{figure}
+\renewcommand \thefigure {\@arabic\c@figure}
 \def\fps@figure{tbp}
 \def\ftype@figure{1}
 \def\ext@figure{lof}
-\def\fnum@figure{\figurename~\thefigure}
+\def\fnum@figure{\figurename\nobreakspace\thefigure}
 \newenvironment{figure}
                {\@float{figure}}
                {\end@float}
 \newenvironment{figure*}
                {\@dblfloat{figure}}
                {\end@dblfloat}
-\newcounter{table}[chapter]
-\renewcommand \thetable
-     {\ifnum \c@chapter>\z@ \thechapter.\fi \@arabic\c@table}
+\newcounter{table}
+\renewcommand\thetable{\@arabic\c@table}
 \def\fps@table{tbp}
 \def\ftype@table{2}
 \def\ext@table{lot}
-\def\fnum@table{\tablename~\thetable}
+\def\fnum@table{\tablename\nobreakspace\thetable}
 \newenvironment{table}
                {\@float{table}}
                {\end@float}
@@ -807,37 +541,34 @@
 \newcommand\@pnumwidth{1.55em}
 \newcommand\@tocrmarg{2.55em}
 \newcommand\@dotsep{4.5}
-\setcounter{tocdepth}{2}
+\setcounter{tocdepth}{3}
 \newcommand\tableofcontents{%
-    \if@twocolumn
-      \@restonecoltrue\onecolumn
-    \else
-      \@restonecolfalse
-    \fi
-    \chapter*{\contentsname
+    \section*{\contentsname
         \@mkboth{%
            \MakeUppercase\contentsname}{\MakeUppercase\contentsname}}%
     \@starttoc{toc}%
-    \if@restonecol\twocolumn\fi
     }
 \newcommand*\l@part[2]{%
   \ifnum \c@tocdepth >-2\relax
-    \addpenalty{-\@highpenalty}%
+    \addpenalty\@secpenalty
     \addvspace{2.25em \@plus\p@}%
+    \setlength\@tempdima{3em}%
     \begingroup
       \parindent \z@ \rightskip \@pnumwidth
       \parfillskip -\@pnumwidth
       {\leavevmode
        \large \bfseries #1\hfil \hb@xt@\@pnumwidth{\hss #2}}\par
        \nobreak
+       \if@compatibility
          \global\@nobreaktrue
          \everypar{\global\@nobreakfalse\everypar{}}%
+      \fi
     \endgroup
   \fi}
-\newcommand*\l@chapter[2]{%
-  \ifnum \c@tocdepth >\m@ne
-    \addpenalty{-\@highpenalty}%
-    \vskip 1.0em \@plus\p@
+\newcommand*\l@section[2]{%
+  \ifnum \c@tocdepth >\z@
+    \addpenalty\@secpenalty
+    \addvspace{1.0em \@plus\p@}%
     \setlength\@tempdima{1.5em}%
     \begingroup
       \parindent \z@ \rightskip \@pnumwidth
@@ -846,45 +577,32 @@
       \advance\leftskip\@tempdima
       \hskip -\leftskip
       #1\nobreak\hfil \nobreak\hb@xt@\@pnumwidth{\hss #2}\par
-      \penalty\@highpenalty
     \endgroup
   \fi}
-\newcommand*\l@section{\@dottedtocline{1}{1.5em}{2.3em}}
-\newcommand*\l@subsection{\@dottedtocline{2}{3.8em}{3.2em}}
-\newcommand*\l@subsubsection{\@dottedtocline{3}{7.0em}{4.1em}}
-\newcommand*\l@paragraph{\@dottedtocline{4}{10em}{5em}}
-\newcommand*\l@subparagraph{\@dottedtocline{5}{12em}{6em}}
+\newcommand*\l@subsection{\@dottedtocline{2}{1.5em}{2.3em}}
+\newcommand*\l@subsubsection{\@dottedtocline{3}{3.8em}{3.2em}}
+\newcommand*\l@paragraph{\@dottedtocline{4}{7.0em}{4.1em}}
+\newcommand*\l@subparagraph{\@dottedtocline{5}{10em}{5em}}
 \newcommand\listoffigures{%
-    \if@twocolumn
-      \@restonecoltrue\onecolumn
-    \else
-      \@restonecolfalse
-    \fi
-    \chapter*{\listfigurename
+    \section*{\listfigurename}%
       \@mkboth{\MakeUppercase\listfigurename}%
-              {\MakeUppercase\listfigurename}}%
+              {\MakeUppercase\listfigurename}%
     \@starttoc{lof}%
-    \if@restonecol\twocolumn\fi
     }
 \newcommand*\l@figure{\@dottedtocline{1}{1.5em}{2.3em}}
 \newcommand\listoftables{%
-    \if@twocolumn
-      \@restonecoltrue\onecolumn
-    \else
-      \@restonecolfalse
-    \fi
-    \chapter*{\listtablename
+    \section*{\listtablename}%
       \@mkboth{%
-          \MakeUppercase\listtablename}{\MakeUppercase\listtablename}}%
+          \MakeUppercase\listtablename}%
+         {\MakeUppercase\listtablename}%
     \@starttoc{lot}%
-    \if@restonecol\twocolumn\fi
     }
 \let\l@table\l@figure
 \newdimen\bibindent
 \setlength\bibindent{1.5em}
 \newenvironment{thebibliography}[1]
-     {\chapter*{\bibname
-        \@mkboth{\MakeUppercase\bibname}{\MakeUppercase\bibname}}%
+     {\section*{\refname}%
+      \@mkboth{\MakeUppercase\refname}{\MakeUppercase\refname}%
       \list{\@biblabel{\@arabic\c@enumiv}}%
            {\settowidth\labelwidth{\@biblabel{#1}}%
             \leftmargin\labelwidth
@@ -897,8 +615,7 @@
       \clubpenalty4000
       \@clubpenalty \clubpenalty
       \widowpenalty4000%
-      \sfcode`\.\@m
-      \singlespaced}
+      \sfcode`\.\@m}
      {\def\@noitemerr
        {\@latex@warning{Empty `thebibliography' environment}}%
       \endlist}
@@ -912,7 +629,7 @@
                 \fi
                 \columnseprule \z@
                 \columnsep 35\p@
-                \twocolumn[\@makeschapterhead{\indexname}]%
+                \twocolumn[\section*{\indexname}]%
                 \@mkboth{\MakeUppercase\indexname}%
                         {\MakeUppercase\indexname}%
                 \thispagestyle{plain}\parindent\z@
@@ -927,7 +644,6 @@
   \kern-3\p@
   \hrule\@width.4\columnwidth
   \kern2.6\p@}
-\@addtoreset{footnote}{chapter}
 \newcommand\@makefntext[1]{%
     \parindent 1em%
     \noindent
@@ -935,20 +651,20 @@
 \newcommand\contentsname{Contents}
 \newcommand\listfigurename{List of Figures}
 \newcommand\listtablename{List of Tables}
-\newcommand\bibname{Bibliography}
+\newcommand\refname{References}
 \newcommand\indexname{Index}
 \newcommand\figurename{Figure}
 \newcommand\tablename{Table}
 \newcommand\partname{Part}
-\newcommand\chaptername{Chapter}
 \newcommand\appendixname{Appendix}
+\newcommand\abstractname{Abstract}
 \def\today{\ifcase\month\or
   January\or February\or March\or April\or May\or June\or
   July\or August\or September\or October\or November\or December\fi
   \space\number\day, \number\year}
 \setlength\columnsep{10\p@}
 \setlength\columnseprule{0\p@}
-\pagestyle{headings}
+\pagestyle{plain}
 \pagenumbering{arabic}
 \if@twoside
 \else
@@ -963,4 +679,12 @@
 \fi
 \endinput
 %%
-%% End of file `CUNY_PhD.cls'.
+%% End of file `article.cls'.
+
+\pagestyle{myheadings}
+
+\markboth{{\it \shortauthor}}{{\it \shorttitle}}
+\markright{{\it \shorttitle}}
+
+\def\dddate{{\small \versiondate}}
+\date{\dddate}

 

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